Symptoms are mainly promoted in the bone structure. Due to a high fluoride concentration in the body, the bone is hardened and thus less elastic, resulting in an increased frequency of fractures. Other symptoms include thickening of the bone structure and accumulation of bone tissue, which both contribute to impaired joint mobility. Ligaments and cartilage can become ossified.
Most patients suffering from skeletal fluorosis show side effects from the high fluoride dose such as ruptures of the stomach lining and nausea. Fluoride can also damage the parathyroid glands, leading to hyperparathyroidism, the uncontrolled secretion of parathyroid hormones. These hormones regulate calcium concentration in the body.
Materials and Methods
Fluoride is one of the anions that endanger human health at concentrations lower and higher than the standard, and this is one of the main problems in most parts of the world. About 200 million people from 25 countries are exposed to high concentrations of fluoride from groundwater sources1,2. Fluoride is an element from the halogen group and its average concentration in the Earth’s crust is 0.3 kg, while its background concentration in the atmosphere is 3 ng per m2.
- Determination of the water fluoride concentration.
- Physico-chemical characteristics.
- Study areas.
- Statistical method.
To present the data, mean, standard deviation, median and range were used. To compare the case and control groups, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used. To obtain the odds ratio of bone disease problem in different risk factors, when considering the cluster effect of rural area, logistic regression in a multilevel model was used.